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LABORATORIES AND EQUIPMENT

Innovative machines and equipment for Industrial Research
LABORATORIES AND EQUIPMENT
CertiMaC and its scientific partners – ENEA and CNR-Istec, by means of Ravenna Technopole – Faenza Headquarter, provide enterprises and researchers with an innovative, integrated and wide range of equipment, laboratories, machines and plants for advanced and traditional materials analysis during research, development, fine-tuning, industrialisation and validation.

The laboratories that researchers use to support industrial innovation are focused on the following fields:

THERMO-PHYSICAL ANALYSIS
Determination of the thermal properties of materials and composite walls, experimental activity for thermal performance optimisation and for the development of eco-sustainable and innovative solution in the energy fields.

Relevant equipment

>
Guarded heat-flow meter for thermal conductivity measurements
> Software for energy performance certification
> 2D and 3D numerical modelling systems
LABORATORIES AND EQUIPMENT
Set of analysis oriented to obtain a complete characterisation of materials: inorganic, organic, liquid and solid materials, also in form of powder, from nanometric to visible scale, with determination of: microstructure, chemical composition (qualitative and quantitative), mapping of primary and secondary chemical phases distribution, identification and quali-quantitative analysis of mineralogical components of multiphasic natural or synthetic samples.

Related equipment
> Reflected, transmitted and polarised light optical and stereoscopic microscopes
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope(EDS)
Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
X-ray diffractometer with high temperature chamber
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscope (ICP-AES)
Sedigraph for granulometric analysis
Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter (pores dimensions: 0.05 ? 100 µm)
Specific surface measuring instrument
Tensiometer and superficial energy measurement equipment
Optical metallographic microscope (1000x) e stereomicroscope
Scanning electron microscope ? Variable Pressure (SEM-VP), with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS
X-Ray Powder Diffractometer
       
Coulter Laser Granulometer (3nm-10µm)
Specific surface measuring instrument, BET method (single point)
PHelium pycnometer for the determination of the density of solid bodies
Rotational viscometer with refrigerated bath
Fluorescence microscope
Spectrofluorometer, spectrophotometer with integrating sphere for CIELab measurement
Flammability Meter
MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
The determination of mechanical properties aims at understanding the relationships between performances and chemical-physical composition of materials. The deep analysis of experimental data and the comparison with relevant theories are not only addressed to performance definition, but also to the development of materials with improved performances thanks to the feedback coming from mechanical characterisation, as it happens for example in fractography or in the analysis of crack-microstructure interaction. Fracture toughness tests can be performed also at high temperature (up to 1500 °C), in laboratory conditions or in controlled atmosphere.
The mechanical characterisation can be performed on bulk materials or also on elements at a sub-micrometric scale, such as single grains, thin films or secondary phases with nano-indentation techniques. Usury/wearing and tribological analysis can conducted on materials or claddings.
       
Relevant equipment
> Universal Testing Machine for the measurement of flexural resistance and compressive strength at room temperature and up to 1500°C
Universal Testing Machine for the measurement of compressive strength at room temperature and up to 1500°C
Static Fatigue measurement instrument (up to 1500°C)
> Measurement instrument to evaluate toughness
Equipment to determine dynamic Young's modulus
Micro and macro durometers
Nanoindenter
Tribometer
Thermal Shock Machine.
Electro-hydraulic machine (maximum load 50 kN) for mechanical testing at room temperature and up to 1500°C
Electro-hydraulic machine (maximum load 70 kN) for mechanical testing at room temperature and up to 1500°C
Electro-hydraulic machine (maximum load 500 kN) for mechanical testing at room temperature and up to 1000°C
Pressurizer for tests on tubes (up to 200 bar)
Rotating bending fatigue testing machine
Charpy pendulum for the determination of resilience
10 creep-testing-machines for tensile creep tests on metals up to 1000 °C
3 creep-testing-machines for flexural creep tests on ceramics and refractory materials up to 1500 °C
Abrasimeter for the determination of abrasion resistance of tiles and stone elements
Non-destructive analysis by means of ultrasonic techniques
Non-destructive analysis by means of resonant frequency method (Grindosonic)
Durometers and micro-durometers for Vickers and Rockwell hardness tests.
2 Slip meters for static and dynamic friction coefficient of pavers.
Universal testing machine for mechanical tests on materials (maximum load 5000kN)
Monoaxial screw machine for static mechanical tests (maximum load 150kN) 
 
Characterisation of the rheological behaviour of a wide range of fluid systems, in particular the ones involved in ceramic process (e.g. slips for the casting, serigraphic inks, enamels, mixes for atomisation).

Relevant equipment
> Viscometers
Torsional rheometer
Electro-acoustic spectroscopium
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ENVIRONMENTAL DURABILITY SIMULATIONS
Environmental durability simulation tests aim at subjecting the product to climatic solicitations and thus evaluating the resistance over time using environmental simulation systems able to reproduce different hydrothermal freeze/thaw cycles laid down in the regulations and to acquire real test data.

Relevant equipment
> 2 Vötsch climatic chambers for the simulation of environmental freeze/thaw cycles (working range – 40 °C + 80°C)
 
In order to use ceramic materials for structural and thermo-structural application, measures to overcome their intrinsic fragility needs to be taken, such as the introduction of reinforcement. The development of long-fibre reinforced ceramic materials requires advanced technologies (e.g. a dedicated CVI plant is available) and unique knowledge and skills at a national level.

Relevant equipment
> Chemical Vapour Infiltration (CVI) plant (working dimensions 300x700 mm)
Polymer Impregnation Pyrolysis (PIP) plant (working dimensions 420x710 mm)
 
POWDER SYNTHESIS AND TREATMENT
It is possible to intervene during formulation phase and during the manipulation of powders in order to control the properties of ceramic suspensions, like slips, mixtures, inks and enamels. It is possible to characterise rheological behaviour of ceramic suspensions and their colloidal stability depending on their final application (tape or mould casting, screen printing, inkjet printing, electrophoretic deposition).

Related equipment
       

> Powder or colloids grinding mill
Micronisers
Trundler
Mixers
Freeze-dryer
Ventilated ovens
Rotary evaporator
Spray dryer
Turbula shaker-mixer
Planetary mill
Attrition mill
Regulated-speed trundler
Ultrasonic Homogenizers
> Ventilated and vacuum ovens
Rotavapor
Spray-dryer, freeze-dryer and spray-freeze-dryer
Ovens for gel-combustion synthesis
LABORATORIES AND EQUIPMENT
MOULDING TECHNOLOGIES
The complete technological characterisation of material foresees a set of tests aimed at determining their behaviour during the productive process and the properties of semi-finished and finished products depending on production conditions.
The set includes technologies for the production of unfired pieces and standard specimens for testing purposes.

Related equipment
> Low pressure injection moulding
Tape caster
Linear press
Cold isostatic press
Cold extruder
Low pressure injection molding
Slip casting in gypsum molds
Mono-axial press
Cold isostatic press (CIP), up to 2500 bar (1.5 dm3 chamber)
CNC mills (up to 1 m3)
> Laser sintering system (PA up to 1 linear meter)
 
DEPOSITION TECHNOLOGIES
Coatings and thin films deposition (single or multi-layered) can be performed for protection of of surfaces of different materials and components by using the best available technology for the intended application.

Relevant equipment 

> Dip coater
> Spin coater
Spray deposition
       
Electrophoretic and galvanic deposition of coatings
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of carbon and silicon carbide.
 
THERMAL ANALYSIS
Thermal Analysis is a group of techniques based on the measurements of a physical property of a substance in function of the temperature (or time) during a controlled temperature program (heating, cooling, isotherm).

Related equipment  
> Heating microscope
Simultaneous thermal analyzer
Linear thermo-dilatometric analyser
Thermal simultaneous analyser TG-DTA
 
THERMAL TREATMENTS
Equipment for densification or firing cycles of traditional and advanced ceramic materials (oxide and non-oxide-based). Cycles can be heating speed, stasis time and cooling speed controlled.

Relevant equipment 
> Furnaces in static air (up to 1800 °C)
Special furnaces in controlled atmospheres (up to 2150 °C)
Hot vacuum press in (up to 1950 °C)
       
Tubular furnace in reducing atmosphere (up to 1600 °C)
Furnaces in static air up to 1600 °C (3 dm3 chamber)
Graphite furnace up to 2200 °C (63 dm3 chamber)
Hot Press (up to 1950 °C and 15 ton) for specimens up to 76mm in diameter
Tubular furnaces in controlled atmosphere for corrosion testing (up to 2200 °C)
Induction furnace (up to 1400 °C) for high temperature mechanical testing